IIR's experience in developing and delivering national training programs for state, local, tribal, and territorial criminal justice agencies and its cadre of nationally and internationally recognized subject-matter experts in the topical subject areas exemplify IIR's unique qualifications to deliver this program on behalf of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Federal Emergency Management Agency.

IIR Management Team
D. Douglas Bodrero
IIR Management Team
  • President and Chief Executive Officer of IIR
  • 44 years of experience in criminal justice
  • FBI National Executive Institute graduate
  • FBI National Academy graduate
  • Commissioner of the Utah Department of Public Safety
  • Former Sheriff of Cache County, Utah
  • Interim Director of the Utah Department of Corrections
  • Member of the International Association of Chiefs of Police Terrorism Committee
  • Former Director of the U.S. Department of Justice State and Local Anti-Terrorism Training Program
  • Founding member of the Utah Commission on Criminal and Juvenile Justice
  • Master's degree in public administration
Full Biography

Doug Bodrero is President of the Institute for Intergovernmental Research (IIR). He is integrally involved in strategic direction, management, and policy issues as well as project design and program oversight. Mr. Bodrero joined IIR in 1997 as a member of the instructional team for the State and Local Anti-Terrorism Training (SLATT) Program. He served as SLATT Director from 1999 until assuming the role of President of IIR in 2003. Under Mr. Bodrero’s leadership, the SLATT Program has achieved national recognition.

Before joining IIR, Mr. Bodrero served as Commissioner of the Utah Department of Public Safety (UDPS) from 1989 to 1996. UDPS is a full-service law enforcement and public safety agency that includes the Utah Highway Patrol, Division of Investigations, Law Enforcement and Technical Services, Peace Officer Standards and Training, State Fire Marshal’s Office, Division of Comprehensive Emergency Management, and other law enforcement support operations. Prior to his appointment as Commissioner, Mr. Bodrero served as Deputy Commissioner of UDPS from 1985 to 1989 and was responsible for all operational commands. Soon after joining UDPS, Mr. Bodrero was assigned by the Governor to serve as interim director of the Department of Corrections for the express purpose of instituting major operational and administrative reforms in that agency.

In 1969, Mr. Bodrero began his law enforcement career as a deputy sheriff with the Cache County, Utah, Sheriff’s Office. He held the positions of patrolman, sergeant, and lieutenant with the patrol, investigations, communications, detention, and support services commands. He was appointed chief deputy in 1976, and in 1979 he was elected sheriff, a position he held until the Governor appointed him to UDPS.

The Governor also appointed Mr. Bodrero as a founding member of the Utah Commission on Criminal and Juvenile Justice (UCCJJ), the criminal justice planning agency for the state of Utah and the state agency that administers all federal, criminal, and juvenile justice funds awarded to the state. Mr. Bodrero served on that commission for 11 years. Upon Mr. Bodrero’s retirement from the UDPS, the Governor requested that he serve as chair of the UCCJJ.

Mr. Bodrero is involved in numerous national professional law enforcement organizations, including the International Association of Chiefs of Police Terrorism Committee. He has taught an upper-division terrorism and extremism course for the University of Utah, as well as a variety of law enforcement, leadership, management, and other criminal justice courses.

Mr. Bodrero is a graduate of the University of Utah with a master’s degree in public administration. He also received a bachelor of science degree in police science from Weber State University. He is a graduate of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) National Academy, 109th Session, and the FBI National Executive Institute, Session XIII, and has completed numerous specialized courses at the National Sheriffs’ Institute; the FBI Law Enforcement Executive Development Seminar, Tenth Session; and the Utah Law Enforcement Executive Development Institute, among others.

John T. Czernis
IIR Management Team
  • Senior research associate for IIR
  • Over 36 years of experience in criminal justice
  • Director of the Florida Highway Patrol
  • Certified law enforcement trainer for over 20 years
  • Past member of the International Board of Directors for the American Association of Motor Vehicle Administrators
  • Past commissioner of the Florida Criminal Justice Standards and Training Commission
  • Past member of the Florida Governor’s Drug Policy Advisory Board
  • Former lead associate for the USDOJ/BJA VALOR Initiative
  • Member of the International Association of Chiefs of Police
  • Master’s degree in public administration
Full Biography

John Czernis is a senior research associate with the Institute for Intergovernmental Research (IIR). He currently serves as the group leader for Training Services. In this capacity, he oversees and directs the development, coordination, and delivery of numerous national training and technical assistance programs designed for criminal justice personnel. Programs under his management include the Preventing Violence Against Law Enforcement and Ensuring Officer Resilience and Survivability (VALOR) Initiative, the State and Local Anti-Terrorism Training (SLATT) Program, the Criminal Intelligence Systems Operating Policies (28 CFR Part 23) Training and Technical Assistance Program, the Center for Task Force Training (CenTF) Program, the Center for Task Force Leadership and Integrity (CTFLI), the Criminal Intelligence Sharing: Protecting Privacy, Civil Rights, and Civil Liberties Training and Technical Assistance Program, and the Methamphetamine Technical Assistance Program.

Previously, Mr. Czernis was the lead associate on the IIR team responsible for management of the VALOR Initiative, a national officer safety project developed at the direction of the U.S. Attorney General. His responsibilities for the VALOR Initiative included overseeing curriculum development and training delivery, coordinating Web development of the VALOR portal, and coordinating with instructional staff and support personnel to ensure the highest standards of quality for VALOR training and resource materials.

Prior to joining IIR, Mr. Czernis served as Colonel and Director of the Florida Highway Patrol (FHP) and was responsible for providing leadership and direction to more than 1,685 sworn and 550 nonsworn positions. He was responsible for the state’s law enforcement mission of highway safety. He served as a liaison between the division and other local, state, and federal agencies on law enforcement issues. Mr. Czernis began his career with the FHP in 1977 as a trooper. He promoted through the ranks, serving in various roles as traffic homicide investigator, first line supervisor, district commander, chief training officer, chief investigator, and deputy director, before being appointed director in 2007. Mr. Czernis began his career in law enforcement as a police officer with the Vero Beach, Florida, Police Department in 1974.

During his tenure with the FHP, Mr. Czernis served on a number of commissions, boards, and committees focused on public safety. He served as a commissioner on the Florida Criminal Justice Standards and Training Commission, as a member of the Florida Criminal Justice Executive Institute Policy Board, as the law enforcement representative on the International Board of Directors for the American Association of Motor Vehicle Administrators, and as a member of the Florida Governor’s Drug Policy Advisory Board. Mr. Czernis is a member of the International Association of Chiefs of Police, State and Provincial Division, and is a past member of the Florida Police Chiefs Association and the Florida Sheriffs Association. He also served as an assessor for the Commission on Accreditation for Law Enforcement Agencies, Inc.

Mr. Czernis holds a master of public administration degree from Florida State University and a bachelor of science degree in criminal justice from Rollins College. He attended the Sixth Session of the Administrative Officers Management Program at North Carolina State University and is a 2005 graduate of the Florida Criminal Justice Institute Chief Executive Seminar. Mr. Czernis has attended numerous other specialized training courses related to law enforcement and leadership.

Gina W. Hartsfield
IIR Management Team
  • Senior Vice President and a senior research associate of IIR
  • More than 25 years serving the criminal justice community
  • More than two decades coordinating complex, national-level training and technical assistance services
  • Oversight of instructional design and the application of adult-learning principles
  • Experienced in working with law enforcement executives on complex issues
  • Proficient in navigating the nuances of governmental, nongovernmental, and grassroots partnerships to achieve successful outcomes
  • Successful oversight and delivery of numerous classroom and Web-based curricula
  • Criminal justice needs assessment
  • Strategic planning
  • Two-time recipient of the IIR Board of Trustees Award for Excellence
Full Biography

Gina Hartsfield is Senior Vice President and a senior research associate with the Institute for Intergovernmental Research (IIR). In this capacity, she oversees and directs the development, coordination, and delivery of national training and technical assistance programs designed for criminal justice personnel. Ms. Hartsfield provides oversight for the project entitled “Community Policing Best Practices in a New Economy” for the Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS) Office.

Ms. Hartsfield is integrally involved in needs assessment and strategic planning, management and policy issues, training and technical assistance delivery oversight, and multimedia distance-learning design. For more than 20 years, she has been involved in instructional design, curriculum development, and classroom and online training delivery services for the criminal justice field. Ms. Hartsfield possesses extensive experience in coordinating a wide range of technical assistance initiatives for state, local, and tribal criminal justice entities. She serves as a liaison with the Bureau of Justice Assistance program office, directing the activities of the training and technical assistance programs and overseeing new initiatives.

Ms. Hartsfield provides oversight for the Homicide Assessment Services and Homicide Investigation Management Training. Programs under her management include the Law Enforcement Forecasting Group (LEFG), the Preventing Violence Against Law Enforcement and Ensuring Officer Resilience and Survivability (VALOR) Initiative, the State and Local Anti-Terrorism Training (SLATT) Program, the Center for Task Force Training (CenTF) Program, the Center for Task Force Leadership and Integrity (CTFLI), the Suspicious Activity Reporting (SAR) Analytic Training Program, the Privacy 101 Training and Technical Assistance Program, the Project Safe Neighborhoods (PSN) Anti-Gang Training Program, the Major Case Investigative Teams Training and Technical Assistance Program, and many others.

Previously, Ms. Hartsfield was a member of the team coordinating training and technical assistance for the Methamphetamine Investigations Training on Tribal Lands, the Grants Management and Programmatic Training Program, and the Project Development and Implementation Training Program. Ms. Hartsfield served on the team providing project coordination and operational performance assessment services to the Organized Crime Narcotics Trafficking Enforcement Program and the Financial Investigations Program. She also served as a member of the team providing support and services to the Regional Information Sharing Systems Program.

Prior to joining IIR in 1986, Ms. Hartsfield served as a research and development assistant with the Florida Department of Law Enforcement. In this capacity, she was involved in research efforts to support the department’s enforcement operations. Ms. Hartsfield holds a bachelor’s degree in criminology from Florida State University.

Terrilee P. Pate
IIR Management Team
  • Senior research associate of IIR
  • Over 28 years of experience in criminal justice
  • Extensive experience with the Building Communities of Trust initiative
  • Over 10 years of experience working with information sharing projects
  • Experienced project manager of multiple national-level law enforcement programs
  • Over 8 years of experience in the area of privacy, civil rights, and civil liberties
  • Bachelor’s degree in criminology
Full Biography

Terri Pate is a senior research associate with the Institute for Intergovernmental Research (IIR). In this capacity, she provides oversight and coordinates activities in support of the Global Justice Information Sharing Initiative (Global), the National Information Exchange Model (NIEM) project, and the Building Communities of Trust project. Ms. Pate’s coordination of the Global Initiative includes extensive experience in the areas of privacy, security, and information sharing standards development. Her experience with the Building Communities of Trust project encompasses coordination of roundtable session dialogues with law enforcement and community members in numerous states throughout the country.

Prior to joining IIR, Ms. Pate served as Program Administrator over the Investigations and Forensics Services Unit of the Florida Department of Law Enforcement (FDLE) in Tallahassee, Florida. Ms. Pate was responsible for the management and oversight of the Investigations and Forensics Program’s budget, performance measurement, grants, and research functions.

During her 18-year tenure with FDLE, Ms. Pate held numerous other positions, including crime intelligence analyst in the Florida Intelligence Center, management review specialist in the Investigations and Forensics Program, and senior management analyst supervisor in the Research and Development Unit. Her duties in these positions included providing intelligence and analytical support primarily in the areas of organized crime, fraud, and narcotics; serving as Florida’s liaison to INTERPOL; coordinating management assessments, justification reviews, audits, and projects of various functions, programs, and entities within FDLE; monitoring Performance-Based Budgeting efforts department-wide, including assisting in the development of unit cost measures; research and development of automated management systems and related policy development and enhancement; analysis of forensic and investigative data for use in resource allocation and justifications; and liaison to seven regional offices regarding FDLE’s investigative strategy, the automated management systems, and Performance-Based Budgeting.

Ms. Pate holds a bachelor’s degree in criminology from Florida State University. She is also a graduate of the charter class of FDLE’s Foundational Leadership Program, a member of the National Association of Women Law Enforcement Executives, and a certified assessor for the Commission for Florida Law Enforcement Accreditation.

Subject-Matter Experts
David L. Carter, Ph.D.
Subject-Matter Expert
  • Senior research associate for IIR
  • Instructor, State and Local Anti-Terrorism Training Program
  • Professor of criminal justice at Michigan State University for 28 years
  • Director of the MSU Intelligence Program
  • Former Kansas City, Missouri, police officer
  • Ph.D. in criminal justice, Sam Houston State University
  • Honorary Doctorate of Laws, University of Central Missouri
  • Author or coauthor of five books
  • Author or coauthor of numerous peer-reviewed journal articles, white papers, professional papers, and project reports
  • Worked at the FBI Behavioral Science Unit on a faculty exchange
  • Consulted with extensive numbers of law enforcement agencies throughout the United States, Europe, Asia, and Australia
  • Received numerous awards for contributions to the discipline from professional associations and universities
Full Biography

David Carter is a professor in the School of Criminal Justice at Michigan State University (MSU), teaching both graduate and undergraduate courses. He is the director of the Intelligence Program at MSU and the Criminal Justice Overseas Study Program to England. He frequently acts as a consultant for many police departments, both domestically and overseas. Dr. Carter provides training for several Bureau of Justice Assistance-funded programs, including the State and Local Anti-Terrorism Training Program and the Criminal Intelligence for the Chief Executive Briefing. Dr. Carter conducts research for a number of terrorism and intelligence-related areas, provides technical assistance to law enforcement agencies developing fusion centers, and provides specialized instruction to conferences and training programs. Before joining MSU in 1985, Dr. Carter served as chairman of the Department of Criminal Justice at the University of Texas-Pan American for nine years. Previously, he was a police officer for both the Kansas City, Missouri, Police Department and Central Missouri State University.

Currently, Dr. Carter serves as project director for a project funded by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security to help state, local, and tribal law enforcement agencies develop an intelligence capacity. During his career, he has been a trainer, a consultant, and an advisor to many law enforcement agencies throughout the United States, Europe, and Asia and has instructed on such diverse topics as organized crime, community policing, law enforcement intelligence, and computer crime. He has presented training sessions at the FBI National Academy; the FBI Law Enforcement Executive Development Seminar; the International Law Enforcement Academy in Budapest, Hungary; and the police “command colleges” of Texas, Florida, Ohio, Massachusetts, Wisconsin, and Kentucky. Dr. Carter’s other areas of expertise include police and policing issues, international policy for policing and crime, police policy and management issues, and police behavior.

In 1991, Dr. Carter was the first professor selected for a faculty exchange program with the FBI’s Behavioral Science Unit. He has authored or coauthored several books and a variety of articles and monographs, all related to policing issues. His most recent publication, Law Enforcement Intelligence: A Guide for State, Local, and Tribal Law Enforcement Agencies (2nd ed.), was published by the U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Community Oriented Policing Services, in May 2009. His book entitled The Police and the Community is in its seventh edition and was published by Macmillan/Prentice-Hall in 2002. He also serves on editorial boards for numerous professional publications.

Dr. Carter holds a doctor of philosophy degree in criminal justice administration from Sam Houston State University and an Honorary Doctorate of Laws from the University of Central Missouri. In 2013, Dr. Carter received the O.W. Wilson Award from the Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences for outstanding lifelong service to the police profession, research, education, and service. He has also received the University Distinguished Alumni Award from Sam Houston State University; the Outstanding Service Award from the Police Section of the Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences; special recognition from the Police Association of College Education for outstanding contributions to the furtherance of higher education for police officers; and the Outstanding Alumni Award from the College of Criminal Justice, Sam Houston State University.

William E. Dyson
Subject-Matter Expert
  • Senior research associate of IIR
  • Instructor, State and Local Anti-Terrorism Training (SLATT) Program
  • 45 years of experience in criminal justice
  • FBI special agent for over 31 years
  • FBI Supervisory Special Agent for 14 years
  • Graduate of the Hazardous Devices School at Redstone Arsenal
  • Author of the college textbook titled Terrorism: An Investigator’s Handbook
  • Founding member of the Chicago Joint Terrorism Task Force and its supervisor for 14 years
  • Recipient of the Attorney General’s Distinguished Service Award
  • Master’s degree in guidance and counseling
Full Biography

Bill Dyson has served as a senior research associate with the Institute for Intergovernmental Research (IIR) since August 1999. In this capacity, he has traveled the United States instructing law enforcement officers in various facets of terrorism investigation in connection with the State and Local Anti-Terrorism Training (SLATT) Program. Mr. Dyson also conducts daily terrorist research and regularly prepares documents that summarize his findings.

Prior to joining IIR, Mr. Dyson was employed by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) as a special agent for over 31 years until his retirement in 1998. He functioned in a supervisory capacity for 14 years, directing one of the FBI’s largest investigative squads. Mr. Dyson specialized in political terrorism investigations for 30 years and was intricately involved in, managed, and/or directed some of the FBI’s most significant terrorism investigations. He gained substantial experience investigating a wide range of federal and local criminal violations committed by terrorists. Mr. Dyson graduated from the Hazardous Devices School at Redstone Arsenal as a qualified bomb technician, and while in the FBI, he functioned in that position for 15 years handling live explosives, training federal and local law enforcement officers with respect to explosive devices, and conducting bomb crime scene investigations. Mr. Dyson also received training at the National Fire Academy.

Throughout his FBI career, Mr. Dyson maintained close relations with local and state law enforcement agencies. In 1981, he was instrumental in developing the Joint Terrorism Task Force (JTTF) concept currently utilized by law enforcement agencies around the country. He was a founding member of the Chicago JTTF, which he supervised from 1984 until his retirement in 1998. In 2001, Mr. Dyson authored the book Terrorism: An Investigator’s Handbook for Anderson Publishing. The book is used by universities and police academies around the country. In 2012, Anderson released an updated and expanded fourth edition of this book.

In addition to his investigative and management responsibilities, Mr. Dyson devoted a great deal of time during his FBI career to lecturing and teaching in the areas of terrorism, crime scene investigation, bombing matters, and investigative techniques. He was a frequent speaker at the FBI Academy in Quantico, Virginia. Since his retirement, Mr. Dyson has traveled around the country and the world providing terrorism-related training. Mr. Dyson is a 1991 recipient of the Attorney General’s Distinguished Service Award, which is one of the highest awards that can be bestowed on a federal law enforcement officer.

Mr. Dyson holds a master of science degree in guidance and counseling from Barry University and a bachelor of education degree from the University of Miami. He has also done graduate work in education at the University of Colorado. Prior to entering the FBI, Mr. Dyson spent five years as a high school teacher and guidance counselor.

Raymond Guidetti
Subject-Matter Expert
  • Independent consultant and expert in intelligence and information sharing
  • Instructor for the State and Local Anti-Terrorism Training (SLATT) Program
  • 20 years of law enforcement experience with the New Jersey State Police
  • Executive Officer and Deputy Director of the New Jersey Regional Operations Intelligence Center
  • Completed a fellowship with the U.S. Department of Homeland Security’s Office of Intelligence and Analysis crafting policy and guidance aimed at strengthening the National Network of Fusion Centers
  • Vice President of the National Fusion Center Association
  • Senior Fellow with Long Island University’s Homeland Security Management Institute
  • 2009 National Fusion Center Representative of the Year
  • 2006 U.S. Attorney General’s Award for Excellence in Furthering the Interests of U.S. National Security
  • 2006 New Jersey State Police Trooper of the Year
  • Master of arts degree in security studies (homeland defense and security) from the Naval Postgraduate School
  • Master of arts degree
Full Biography

Raymond Guidetti is a member of the New Jersey State Police and is currently assigned to the New Jersey Regional Operations Intelligence Center as the Executive Officer and Deputy Director. He is strategically involved in implementing intelligence-led policing within New Jersey. He recently completed a 12-month fellowship with the U.S. Department of Homeland Security’s Office of Intelligence and Analysis. In that capacity, he worked within the State and Local Program Office on an interagency team crafting policy and guidance aimed at strengthening the National Network of Fusion Centers. He is also a Senior Fellow with Long Island University’s Homeland Security Management Institute, where he teaches intelligence, intelligence-led policing, and counterterrorism-related curricula.

Major Guidetti is currently the Vice President of the National Fusion Center Association and represents the interests of state and major urban area fusion centers in order to promote the development and sustainment of fusion centers to enhance public safety; encourage effective, efficient, ethical, lawful, and professional intelligence and information sharing; and prevent and reduce the harmful effects of crime and terrorism on victims, individuals, and communities.

Major Guidetti is the author of several articles on intelligence, fusion centers, and intelligence-led policing. He is the recipient of numerous awards, including the 2006 U.S. Attorney General’s Award for Excellence in Furthering the Interests of U.S. National Security, the 2006 New Jersey State Police Trooper of the Year Award, and the 2009 National Fusion Center Representative of the Year.

Major Guidetti earned a master of arts degree in security studies (homeland defense and security) from the Naval Postgraduate School in 2006, a master of arts degree in education from Seton Hall University in 1998, and a bachelor of science degree from Montclair State University in 1989.

Robert F. Harris
Subject-Matter Expert
  • Senior research associate of IIR
  • Instructor, State and Local Anti-Terrorism Training (SLATT) Program
  • Over 35 years of experience in criminal justice
  • 25 years as an adjunct instructor in criminal justice at Drury University
  • Trained over 10,000 law enforcement officers in the area of domestic criminal extremists
  • Past Board of Directors of the Missouri Correctional Association
  • Founding member and past president of the Missouri Gang Investigators Association
  • Gang Investigator of the Year 1999: Missouri Gang Investigators Association
  • Authored BJA document: "Law Enforcement Officers Killed in Encounters Involving Offenders With Ties to Domestic Criminal Extremist Groups 2000 Through 2011"
  • Master's degree in criminal justice administration
Full Biography

Robert Harris is a senior research associate with the Institute for Intergovernmental Research (IIR), where he provides subject-matter expertise and instruction for the State and Local Anti-Terrorism Training Program, the VALOR Initiative, and the Nationwide Suspicious Activity Reporting (SAR) Initiative (NSI). In addition, he owns and operates Harris Group, a criminal justice and medical legal consulting business that develops and conducts training for law enforcement, corrections, and medical facilities in the United States and abroad. From 1985 to 2010, Mr. Harris was an adjunct instructor of criminal justice at Drury University, where he helped develop curricula. He taught undergraduate courses, including Introduction to Gangs, Serial Homicide, Domestic Terrorism, Interview and Interrogations, Comparative Criminal Justice Systems, Violent Crime, and Ritualistic Crime.

Before starting his consulting business, Mr. Harris spent 20 years as a senior case manager for the U.S. Bureau of Prisons (BOP), where he was responsible for the coordination of mental health evaluations for all U.S. District Courts. This unit served as a management unit for high-security and high-profile inmates, including members of the Montana Freemen, the Viper Militia, the Republic of Texas, the Aryan Brotherhood, and the Mexican Mafia. The unit housed several domestic and international terrorists, including individuals associated with the 1993 World Trade Center bombing. During his time with BOP, Mr. Harris also served as a primary hostage negotiator and staff instructor in the areas of gangs, disruptive groups, cults/ritualistic behavior, bomb threats, hostage survival, hostage situation first responders, and inmate/staff relations.

Mr. Harris has provided training for numerous state, local, and federal agencies throughout the Midwest. He is a Peace Officer Standards and Training (POST)-certified specialist instructor and has taught courses at Missouri State University in jail management, hostage survival and negotiations, prisoner transportation, court security, bomb threats, crisis management, hate crimes, gangs, and ritualistic criminal behavior. In addition, he serves as a contract instructor for the National Institute of Corrections. Mr. Harris served ten years in the U.S. Air Force as a supervisor for patrol, drug investigation, and explosive investigation units in Europe, the United States, and Asia.

Mr. Harris has served as a past chairman of the Springfield Interagency Task Force on Gangs and Youth Violence, where he was a contributing author for informational pamphlets and the Citizen Information Manual and a developer for the Speakers Bureau lecture format and lesson plan. He was a founding member and a past president of the Missouri Gang Investigators Association. Mr. Harris is a current member of the American Correctional Association, the Missouri Correctional Association, the National Gang Task Force, the Police Marksman Association, the American Criminal Justice Association, and the Midwest Gang Investigators Association.

Mr. Harris received a master of science degree in criminal justice administration from Central Missouri State University and a bachelor of science degree in criminal justice from Drury University.

Patricia Dobbs Hodges
Subject-Matter Expert
  • Senior research associate of IIR
  • 29 years of experience in criminal justice
  • Specializes in privacy policy development and assessment
  • Policy assessment Instructor for Criminal Intelligence Sharing: Protecting Privacy, Civil Rights, and Civil Liberties Training Program
  • Managed federal grant programs for state and local criminal justice agencies
  • Leads engagements with communities to diagnose and analyze crime issues, identify evidence-based solutions, and facilitate delivery of training and technical assistance
  • Diagnostic specialist for OJP Diagnostic Center
  • Former police officer for Norfolk, Virginia, Police Department
  • Recipient of Attorney General’s Distinguished Service Award
Full Biography

Patricia Dobbs Hodges is a senior research associate with the Institute for Intergovernmental Research (IIR). She is part of IIR’s team that partners with Booz Allen Hamilton to support the U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ), Office of Justice Programs’ (OJP) Diagnostic Center and the Bureau of Justice Assistance (BJA) National Training and Technical Assistance Center. She is responsible for facilitating coordination between the OJP Diagnostic Center and IIR and identifying opportunities for training and technical assistance that IIR supports. Ms. Dobbs Hodges also provides project management support to the OJP Diagnostic Center. As a diagnostic specialist for the OJP Diagnostic Center, she is responsible for leading engagements with communities to diagnose and analyze crime issues, identify evidence-based solutions, and facilitate delivery of training and technical assistance.

Ms. Dobbs Hodges is a member of and primary instructor for the instructional team for the Criminal Intelligence Systems Operating Policies (28 CFR Part 23) Training and Technical Assistance Program and the Criminal Intelligence Sharing: Protecting Privacy, Civil Rights, and Civil Liberties Training aProgram, sponsored by DOJ BJA. She is responsible for the development of class curricula, instructors, and multimedia products and provides direct technical assistance on 28 CFR Part 23, including conducting policy compliance reviews and on-site system reviews.

Ms. Dobbs Hodges is a member of the staff support team for the Privacy and Civil Liberties Subcommittee of the Information Sharing Environment Information Sharing and Access Interagency Policy Committee. She is responsible for the development of privacy and civil liberties policy guidance and training products for federal agencies and fusion centers. She was also a primary instructor for BJA’s Project Management Development and Implementation Training Program and was part of the development team for the BJA Grant Writing and Management Academy.

Prior to joining IIR, Ms. Dobbs Hodges was a branch chief for BJA. In this position, she directly supported the development and management of various federal grant programs, including the Policing Hiring Supplement (precursor to the Community Oriented Policing Services program), Violence Against Women grants, and Local Law Enforcement Block Grants Program. She was responsible for program administration and management, including compliance monitoring. While in her tenure at DOJ, Ms. Dobbs Hodges received the Attorney General’s Distinguished Service Award, the National Performance Review Hammer Award, and the JustWorks Award for her contributions to department programs.

Previously, Ms. Dobbs Hodges served as a grant administrator for the District of Columbia Office of Grants Management and Development and was responsible for the Drug Control and Systems Improvement Formula Grant Program (Byrne Formula Grant Program) and the Weed and Seed Program, as well as several other DOJ programs and a local grant program for area law schools. She also served as a police officer for the city of Norfolk, Virginia.

Ms. Dobbs Hodges received a master of science degree in criminal justice from American University, Washington, DC, and a bachelor of arts degree in law enforcement from the University of Arkansas at Fayetteville.

Samer E. Issa
Subject-Matter Expert
  • Independent consultant and nationally recognized subject-matter expert, Muslim and Middle Eastern cultures
  • Instructor, State and Local Anti-Terrorism Training (SLATT) Program
  • Detective/Sergeant, Los Angeles Police Department
  • Terrorism Liaison Officer
  • 16 years of experience in law enforcement
  • Arabic translation and name analysis expertise
  • Provides linguistic and cultural advice to the Federal Bureau of Investigation, the U.S. Secret Service, the Central Intelligence Agency, the U.S. Department of Justice, and state, local, homeland security, and tribal law enforcement
  • Bachelor’s degree in professional studies
Full Biography

Samer Issa began his career with the Los Angeles Police Department (LAPD) in 1997. He was assigned to the Mission Division, Major Assault Crimes Unit, in October 2008. Currently, he is assigned to the Mission Area Burglary Table and is one of the division’s Terrorism Liaison Officers. He also assists LAPD and many other law enforcement agencies across the country as an advisor on Middle-Eastern culture and as an Arabic translator.

Mr. Issa was born and raised in Jordan and immigrated to the United States as an adult. As a result of his upbringing, he acquired an in-depth knowledge and unique perspective of Islam and Middle-Eastern culture and customs, as well as fluency in writing and speaking Arabic.

Prior to his current LAPD assignment, Mr. Issa was assigned to the Van Nuys Division as a field supervisor. He also served as the officer-in-charge of the Rampart Area—Alvarado Corridor Project Unit. He was previously assigned to the Major Crimes Division, Anti-Terrorism Intelligence Section, where he worked a variety of assignments, including case and strategic analysis, surveillance, dignitary protection, and intelligence investigation. He has provided special case consultation and acted as a liaison for LAPD with law enforcement professionals nationally and internationally and within the local Arabic and Muslim communities in the Los Angeles area. After graduating from the police academy, he began his career with LAPD in the patrol division. He responded to numerous calls of service; enforced state, local, and federal laws; and apprehended numerous law violators. He also worked as a detective trainee filing criminal cases with city and district attorneys.

Mr. Issa uses his linguistic skills and Middle-Eastern culture expertise to assist various law enforcement agencies with both intelligence and criminal investigations. He has assisted the Federal Bureau of Investigation; the U.S. Secret Service; the Central Intelligence Agency; the U.S. Department of Justice; and state, local, homeland security, and tribal law enforcement agencies in more than 35 states.

Mr. Issa has provided training to law enforcement personnel in combating terrorism, terrorism awareness and prevention, Middle-Eastern culture and Islam awareness, interview and interrogation techniques, developing sources and informants, and conventional Arabic name analysis. He provides officers and analysts from state, local, tribal, and federal agencies with the necessary tools for interacting with Arabs and Muslims during interrogations, interviews, and source development.

Mr. Issa has a bachelor of science degree in professional studies and an associate degree in administration of justice from California State University, Long Beach.

Jonathan Marley
Subject-Matter Expert
  • Independent consultant and expert in terrorism indicators and intelligence
  • Instructor for the State and Local Anti-Terrorism Training (SLATT) Program
  • 18 years of law enforcement experience with the New Jersey State Police
  • Member of the Joint Terrorism Task Force out of Newark, New Jersey
  • Assisted in managing JTTF international terrorism investigations for the International Terrorism Operations Section at the National Counterterrorism Center
  • Interviewed suspected al Qaeda captives at the FBI’s Military Liaison and Detention Unit in Guantanamo Bay, Cuba
  • Participated on the Intelligence Working Group for the U.S. Department of Homeland Security’s TOPOFF 3 international full-scale exercise
  • U.S. Marine Corps Reserve veteran
  • Adjunct professor for homeland security courses at Fairleigh Dickinson University
  • Master of arts degree in education from Seton Hall University
Full Biography

Jonathan Marley is a member of the Federal Bureau of Investigation’s (FBI) Joint Terrorism Task Force (JTTF) out of Newark, New Jersey, and is assigned to an international terrorism squad. Prior to his assignment with the Newark Division, he was assigned to the JTTF out of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Previous to his assignment with the JTTF, he was with the New Jersey Office of Homeland Security and Preparedness (NJOHSP), whose mission is to detect, deter, and disrupt terrorism and terrorist-related activity in New Jersey. His responsibilities included conducting intelligence and criminal investigations as they pertained to international and domestic terrorist organizations, developing and delivering anti-terrorism awareness training for public and private sector entities, providing community outreach, and assisting in developing force protection for critical infrastructure sites in New Jersey.

Before joining the NJOHSP, Mr. Marley was the New Jersey State Police (NJSP) coordinator for the Anti-Terrorism Awareness seminars that were conducted by the FBI, the NJSP, and NJOHSP throughout New Jersey from 2002 to 2005. From 2000 to 2002, he delivered in-service training for veteran troopers and firearms, anti-terrorism, and first aid training for recruits for the NJSP Academy’s In-Service Training Unit.

Prior to his transfer to the Academy, Mr. Marley was assigned to Troop “A.” In Troop “A,” he worked with the Technical Emergency and Mission Specialists (TEAMS) Unit—a full-time SWAT, SCUBA Search and Recovery, and High Angle Rescue Unit—and the Tactical Patrol Unit. He began his career with the NJSP as a general-duty road trooper in Troop “A,” which encompasses southern New Jersey. He graduated with the 116th NJSP class in 1995.

Mr. Marley has provided anti-terrorism training to thousands of law enforcement personnel throughout the United States. He has appeared several times as a guest speaker at the FBI Academy in Quantico, Virginia. He was assigned to the Intelligence Working Group for the U.S. Department of Homeland Security’s TOPOFF 3 international full-scale exercise in 2005. In 2007, he was assigned to the FBI’s Military Liaison and Detention Unit in Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, where he worked at the U.S. Naval Facility conducting interviews of suspected al Qaeda captives. In 2010, Mr. Marley was assigned to the FBI International Terrorism Operations Section (ITOS) at the National Counterterrorism Center in McLean, Virginia, where he worked and assisted in managing JTTF international terrorism investigations for the FBI Philadelphia Division. In addition, he served eight years in the U.S. Marine Corps Reserve. He is also a member of the International Association for Counterterrorism and Security Professionals and the International Counter-Terrorism Officers Association. He is an adjunct professor at Fairleigh Dickinson University, where he teaches homeland security courses for graduate and undergraduate students.

Mr. Marley holds a master of arts degree in education from Seton Hall University and a bachelor of science degree in criminal justice from Richard Stockton College.

Richard A. Marquise
Subject-Matter Expert
  • Senior research associate of IIR
  • Director and Instructor of the State and Local Anti-Terrorism Training (SLATT) Program
  • 42 years of experience in criminal justice
  • Author of the book Scotbom: Evidence and the Lockerbie Investigation
  • Assisted the governments of Kenya, Montenegro, Pakistan, the Philippines, and Serbia in creating and training their terrorist task forces
  • Special Agent in Charge of the Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) field office
  • 31 years of service as a special agent of the FBI
  • FBI agent in charge of the U.S. task force that investigated the 1988 terrorist bombing of Pan Am Flight 103 over Lockerbie, Scotland
  • Master's degree in special studies from The George Washington University
Full Biography

Richard Marquise is a senior research associate with the Institute for Intergovernmental Research (IIR). He was appointed as the Director of the Bureau of Justice Assistance State and Local Anti-Terrorism Training (SLATT) Program in September 2010, after serving as an instructor for the program since 2002. Before joining IIR, Mr. Marquise was employed by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) for 31 years. During his last 3½ years with the FBI, he was the Special Agent in Charge of the Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, Division.

Mr. Marquise’s expertise is in the fields of counterterrorism and crisis management as an investigator and a manager. During the late 1980s, he was chief of the Terrorist Research and Analytical Center (TRAC) at FBI Headquarters. He also led a Middle-Eastern terrorism unit that managed FBI investigations worldwide.

Following the bombing of Pan Am Flight 103 over Lockerbie, Scotland, in 1988, Mr. Marquise was named to lead the American Task Force. He led the task force through the indictments in 1991 and continued to play an active role through the trial’s successful resolution in 2001. In August 2001, he received the Attorney General’s Award for Distinguished Service for this investigation. Mr. Marquise is the author of Scotbom: Evidence and the Lockerbie Investigation, an inside account of the Pan Am Flight 103 investigation, which was published in 2006.

Mr. Marquise is an expert in the fields of management and leadership, having served the FBI as a leader of squads, units, and divisions for more than 20 years. A veteran of numerous crises—including terror attacks, kidnappings, prison takeovers, and other significant events—he is well-versed in crisis management.

In addition to domestic law enforcement training, Mr. Marquise has made hundreds of presentations and provided training to international law enforcement officials on the topic of terrorism. He has taught at the International Law Enforcement Academies in Botswana, Hungary, and Thailand, as well as at the FBI Academy in Virginia. He assisted the governments of Kenya, Montenegro, Pakistan, the Philippines, and Serbia in creating and training their terrorism task forces.

Mr. Marquise holds a master’s degree from The George Washington University in Washington, DC, and an undergraduate degree from Saint Michael’s College in Vermont. He has also attended numerous professional FBI training courses in the fields of leadership, management, and crisis management.

Thomas J. Martinelli
Subject-Matter Expert
  • Independent training consultant and member of the IIR training team
  • Subject-matter expert—police ethics and liability issues, focusing on risk management
  • Expert witness in federal civil rights cases
  • Member of the Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences
  • Member of the International Association of Chiefs of Police’s Professional Standards, Ethics, and Image Committee
  • Member of the Michigan State Bar Association
  • Member of the Midwestern Criminal Justice Association
  • Published author and coauthor of numerous articles on police ethics, liability training issues, and managing risk in the public sector
  • Articles addressing liability issues and intelligence-led policing published in The Police Chief magazine
  • Juris doctor and master’s degree in criminal justice police ethical issues
Full Biography

Thomas Martinelli, Esquire, is an adjunct professor in the Criminal Justice Department at Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan, where he teaches criminal justice courses at the undergraduate level. He is also a partner in the law offices of Martinelli and Montney, PLC, and has been a practicing attorney for more than 20 years. In addition, he conducts research in the field of police ethics and liability issues, police misconduct, and constitutional policing trends. He is a police ethics and liability trainer and specifically focuses on risk management issues in policing.

During his career, Mr. Martinelli has been a patrol officer, a department advocate, a consultant, and an adjunct professor; has worked in internal affairs; and has testified as an expert witness in federal civil rights cases. He has authored and coauthored a number of articles and research presentations, most of which are related to police ethics and liability training issues and managing risk in the public sector. Most recently, he wrote several articles addressing liability issues in intelligence-led policing for the October 2009 edition of The Police Chief magazine. He has been a committee member of the International Association of Chiefs of Police’s Police Professional Standards, Ethics and Image Committee for the past ten years. He is a training consultant and addresses privacy trends and ethical and legal issues in intelligence-led policing for the Michigan State University Intelligence Toolbox Training program, as well as for the Institute for Intergovernmental Research.

Mr. Martinelli holds a juris doctor degree from Michigan State University/Detroit College of Law, a master’s degree in criminal justice police ethical issues, and a bachelor’s degree in history and criminal justice from Michigan State University. Mr. Martinelli has also completed some postgraduate course work in police historical studies at Wayne State University.

Jonathan White Ph.D.
Subject-Matter Expert
  • Independent consultant and subject-matter expert in religious terrorism
  • Former director and current instructor for the State and Local Anti-Terrorism Training (SLATT) Program
  • Professor of Interdisciplinary Studies at Grand Valley State University (GVSU)
  • More than 30 years of criminal justice experience
  • Nearly 30 years as an educator at GVSU
  • Founder of the GVSU School of Criminal Justice
  • Executive Director, GVSU Homeland Defense Initiative
  • Authored seven editions of Terrorism and Homeland Security and four editions of Terrorism: An Introduction
  • Former police officer with the Jackson, Michigan, Police Department
  • GVSU Outstanding Teacher in 1996 and Outstanding Educator in 1995
  • Ordained in the National Association of Congregational Christian Churches
  • Ph.D. in multidisciplinary social sciences
  • Master of divinity from Western Theological Seminary
Full Biography

Jonathan White is a professor of interdisciplinary studies in the Frederik Meijer Honors College of Grand Valley State University (GVSU) in Grand Rapids, Michigan. In January 2005, Dr. White began his current position as GVSU’s Executive Director of the Homeland Defense Initiative. Previously, Dr. White served as GVSU’s dean of social science and founding director of the School of Criminal Justice. Dr. White also served as director of the Institute for Intergovernmental Research’s State and Local Anti-Terrorism (SLATT) Program and continues to serve the SLATT Program as a specialist in jihadist terrorism, violent criminal extremism, and religious violence.

Before beginning his career in academe, Dr. White worked for several years in the law enforcement field. He was a curriculum specialist with the Michigan State Police and a patrol officer, undercover investigator, and assistant administrator with the Jackson Police Department in Jackson, Michigan. He was also a member of the police department’s SWAT team.

Dr. White is the author of many books, monographs, articles, and other publications. These include Terrorism and Homeland Security (seven editions); Terrorism: An Introduction (four editions); Defending the Homeland: Domestic Intelligence, Law Enforcement, and Security; The Prussian Army: 1640–1871; and Holy War: Terrorism as a Theological Construct.

Dr. White was selected as GVSU’s Outstanding Teacher in 1996. He also has been recognized by the Michigan Legislature and the Federal Bureau of Investigation for work in religious terrorism. He was awarded the Outstanding Educator Award in 1995 and the Carnegie Fellowship for International Peace and Security Studies in 1987. He was placed on the Michigan State University, School of Criminal Justice’s Wall of Fame in 2007.

Dr. White holds a doctor of philosophy degree in multidisciplinary social science (criminal justice, political science, and sociology) from Michigan State University; a master of arts degree in history and a bachelor of arts degree in history and religion from Western Michigan University; and a master of divinity from Western Theological Seminary. He is ordained in the National Association of Congregational Christian Churches and has served several parishes in western Michigan.

Foria Younis
Subject-Matter Expert
  • Independent consultant and subject matter expert, Muslim culture
  • Instructor, State and Local Anti-Terrorism Training (SLATT) Program
  • 10 years of service as a special agent of the FBI
  • Specialist on Pakistani matters for the U.S. Department of State
  • 2003 FBI Director's Award for Outstanding Terrorism Investigation
  • Multilingual in English, Urdu, Hindi, and Punjabi
  • Former prosecutor for the Street Gangs Unit, Joliet, Illinois
  • Bachelor's degree in political science
  • Juris doctor degree
  • Member of the Illinois State Bar Association
Full Biography

Foria Younis is the founder and CEO of South Asia-Middle East Consultants. This New York City-based consultancy provides training to thousands of law enforcement and security professionals across the United States and around the world. South Asia-Middle East Consultants specializes in providing training and consultation relating to Muslim culture, suicide bombers, and homegrown terrorism.

Prior to forming South Asia-Middle East Consultants, Ms. Younis was a special agent with the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) for ten years. Part of the FBI’s New York Joint Terrorism Task Force, Ms. Younis worked on a variety of terrorism investigations, including the U.S. Embassy bombings in Africa; the USS Cole bombing in Yemen; the September 11, 2001, World Trade Center investigation; the kidnapping and subsequent murder of Wall Street Journal reporter Daniel Pearl; and various other terrorism cases. Many of Ms. Younis’s cases have involved her cultural knowledge and/or surveillance operations. In connection with these investigations, Ms. Younis has traveled to many Muslim countries, including Afghanistan and Pakistan. While with the FBI, Ms. Younis was part of an initial post-September 11 team sent to Pakistan for training senior officials in anti-terrorism methods and techniques. Prior to joining the FBI, Ms. Younis prosecuted cases for the Street Gangs Unit in Joliet, Illinois.

She serves as a specialist on Pakistani matters for the U.S. Department of State. Additionally, she is part of a specialized consultation effort by the U.S. Department of State that provides guidance to foreign governments on the prevention of suicide bombings. Ms. Younis also provides assistance to the U.S. military with their efforts in Afghanistan. Ms. Younis speaks English, Urdu, Hindi, and Punjabi.

Ms. Younis is an adjunct professor at the University of Virginia. An FBI-certified instructor, she teaches Jihadi Terrorism regularly at the FBI and U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration Academies in Quantico, Virginia. She is also a regular instructor with the International Law Enforcement Academy. Profiled in The Telegraph (U.K.) and numerous other publications, Ms. Younis provides expert commentary on terrorism and Muslim culture matters for the CNN Network. In 2003, she received the FBI Director’s Award for Outstanding Terrorism Investigation for her work on the Daniel Pearl case.

Ms. Younis received her juris doctorate from Golden Gate University in San Francisco and is a member of the Illinois Bar. She holds a bachelor of arts degree cum laude in political science, with a minor in economics, from Northern Illinois University.

IIR Corporate Qualifications

Since 1978, the Institute for Intergovernmental Research (IIR or the Institute) has earned a national reputation for excellence among local, state, federal, tribal, and regional law enforcement experts. A Florida-based nonprofit corporation specializing in research and training for criminal justice, homeland security, and juvenile justice issues, IIR employs over 150 people and maintains additional offices in Washington, DC, and Tennessee.

IIR's VISION: To be the trusted provider of superior training and specialized technical assistance services for law enforcement and public safety, through innovative and effective solutions.

IIR’S MISSION: Achieving success for our clients through the delivery of exemplary programs and superior services that enhance public safety, governmental effectiveness, and organizational efficiency.

With special emphasis on intergovernmental collaboration, IIR offers unequaled expertise and an extraordinary track record in management and organization, operations, information systems, planning, research, technical assistance, program evaluation, curriculum development, training, and policy development and implementation. The following are representative of successfully completed IIR projects:

  • Support to the Law Enforcement National Data Exchange Consensus Project
  • Organized Crime Narcotics Trafficking Enforcement Program
  • Grants Management and Programmatic Training Program
  • Project Development and Implementation Training Program

Some of IIR’s ongoing projects include:

  • Dru Sjodin National Sex Offender Public Website
  • National Gang Center
  • Regional Information Sharing Systems (RISS) Technical Assistance
  • VALOR Initiative
  • Support to the Nationwide Fusion Center Training and Technical Assistance Project
  • Global—Support to Justice Information Sharing—the Federal Advisory Committee to the U.S. Attorney General
  • Support to the Information Sharing Environment Privacy Guidelines
  • Center for Task Force Training (CenTF)
  • State and Local Anti-Terrorism Training (SLATT) Program
  • Gang Resistance Education And Training (G.R.E.A.T.) Program

For further details, please visit IIR’s Web site at www.iir.com.

IIR excels in research, customized training, and technical assistance programs in such specialized fields as youth gangs, anti-terrorism, investigative management, intelligence gathering, grants administration, information sharing, and privacy concerns. Extensive data collection and analysis and detailed case studies are designed to help law enforcement officials tailor solutions to their specific needs. For example, the National Gang Center, a collaboration between IIR and the Bureau of Justice Assistance and the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, conducts an annual survey of law enforcement agencies to determine the scope of the youth gang problem nationally. In addition, IIR provides technical training to hundreds of agencies throughout the United States. For instance, IIR offers a two-day course for law enforcement intelligence commanders on effectively operating an intelligence unit.

The Institute designs and conducts customized workshops and seminars across the country to assist law enforcement personnel in improving their leadership, technical, operational, and managerial skills. Other areas of special competence include security and privacy concerns, organized crime, investigative and intelligence management systems, and narcotics control.

IIR utilizes cutting-edge multimedia and graphics design in the development of products for training and education. The Institute also operates state-of-the-art information systems and is an Internet host for affiliated law enforcement and criminal justice organizations, providing Web site content, development, and maintenance services. Web sites developed and hosted by IIR have earned national awards, including the U.S. Department of Justice’s National Sex Offender Public Registry (renamed the Dru Sjodin National Sex Offender Public Website—www.nsopw.gov), which was selected by the 2006 American Council for Technology and the Industry Advisory Council as one of the top five federal agency program winners for the sixth annual Excellence.Gov awards.

Institute experts possess a wide variety of educational backgrounds and degrees—in public administration, management, law, business administration, communications, history, information technology, social sciences, accounting, and criminal justice—and thousands of years of collective experience in the public and private sectors. A sampling of the organizations with which IIR conducts business includes the following:

  • U.S. Department of Homeland Security
  • Office of the Director of National Intelligence
  • Program Manager, Information Sharing Environment
  • Federal Bureau of Investigation
  • Bureau of Justice Assistance
  • Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention
  • Office of Sex Offender Sentencing, Monitoring, Apprehending, Registering, and Tracking
  • U.S. Department of State
  • IJIS Institute
  • International Association of Chiefs of Police
  • National Sheriffs’ Association
  • Major Cities Chiefs Association
  • Advisory Committee for the Juvenile Gang Suppression and Intervention Program
  • International Association of Directors of Law Enforcement Standards and Training
  • SEARCH—The National Consortium for Justice Information and Statistics
  • American Society for Industrial Security
  • National Alliance of Gang Investigators Associations

Since 1978, IIR’s legacy has been the promotion of greater efficiency and effectiveness among federal, state, local, and tribal law enforcement agencies, not only within their operations but cooperatively across jurisdictional lines. IIR is also an authorized federal vendor for professional services, including consulting, facilitation, and survey services.